Every day we receive lots of mails and photographs of gemstones, to decide whether they are genuine or not. But is is really very difficult to identify real gems, and even best gemologist can’t identify the real gemstone.
Each and every gemstone has a unique set of physical and optical property. It includes color, cut, and clarity. Hardness, refractive index, specific gravity or density is also one of the most important feature to identify a real gemstone. Sometimes you may find that some gemstones have an approx the same specific gravity and specific refractive index, but each gem type has a unique profile. Just don’t try to identify gemstones by refractive index.
The binocular microscope is a very important tool used for the identification of gemstones. It can be used to detect signs of heat treatment or fracture filling. But some forms of treatment can only be identified by specialized and extensive equipment. For example, detecting radiation treatment requires use of gamma ray spectroscopy and beryllium treatment of sapphire is most likely to be detected by LIBS procedure(Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy).You will not find these tools near your neighborhood, but you can get identify your gemstone by a good and authorized gemologist.
A well trained gemologist with vast experience can provide you good and accurate details of your gemstone. But the gems should be certified by lab testing and by an experienced gemologist.